Many people are unaware that there are many varieties of Zionist ideology and approach. This course will explore the birth of modern-day Zionism from Theodor Herzl’s Der Judenstaat to Ze’ev Jabotinsky’s Revisionist Zionism, to Rav Avraham Yitzchak Kook’s Religion, Mystical Zionist to Be’er Borochov’s Socialist Zionism to Ahad Ha’Am’s Spiritual/Cultural Zionism to Leon Pinsker’s Labor Zionism to Max Nordau’s ‘Muscle Zionism,’ and much, much more. Together we will explore voices that considered the so-called ‘Arab question,’ — those that sought to find just pathways to a Jewish homeland, and addressing the realities that an Arab population lived in the land called Palestine by the British Mandate, and those Zionists who ignored the problem entirely. We will also consider how ancient and new Messianism played into the Zionist drama. Though the geopolitical unfolding of events in the Middle East from the late 19th century until the birth of the State of Israel in 1948 will serve as a backdrop to our deliberations, this course will focus on the foundational ideologies of earlier Zionist thinkers (until about the 1930's and 40's) and these thinkers' articulation of their ideas.